Allahu Ta`ala Exists
without a Place for His existence

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds, to Him belong the endowments and the befitting perfections and commendations. I ask Allah to raise the rank of Prophet Muhammad, sall-Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and to protect his Ummah from that which he fears for it. Thereafter:

The saying that Allah, Ta’ala, exists without a place for His existence is the belief and the creed of the Messenger of Allah, sall-Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the Companions and those who graciously followed them, and it shall be so until the Day of Judgment. The proof of this precious statement is what Allah said in the Glorious Qur’an, in Surat ash-Shura, ayah 11:

which means: “There is nothing like Him and He is endowed with hearing  seeing.” This ayah declares Allah to be immune from resembling His creation. It includes that Allah, Ta’ala, is different from the creations in Essence, Attributes, and Deeds. Hence, it shows that Allah, Ta’ala, exists without a place for His existence, because the one who exists in a place would, by nature, be composed of atoms, i.e., he would be a body, occupying a space, and Allah, Ta’ala, is clear of occupying spaces.
Imams al-Bukhari, al-Bayhaqi and Ibn al­Jarud related that the Messenger of Allah, sall-Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said:
which means: “There was Allah and nothing existed but Him” He existed from eternity and there was nothing else.” This hadith proves that Allah was alone in al-‘azal (the status of existence without a beginning,) , before creating any of the creation. There was nothing with Him: no place, no space, no sky, no light, and no darkness. It is determined in the rules of Din and the judgments of the sound mind that Allah, the Exalted, does not change. Hence, it is impossible that after having been existing without a place, He would start existing in a place, because this is a development, and the development is a sign of needing others, and the one who needs others is not God.
Imam Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi related in his book, al-Farqu bayn al­Firaq, that Imam ‘Ali, the fourth rightly-guided caliph, may Allah be generous with him, said:
which means: “Allah existed eternally and there was no place, and He is now ias He was before.
Imam Abu Hanifah, the Faqih of as-Salaf, said in his book Al-Fiqh al­Absat: “Allah existed eternally and there was no place. He existed before creating the creation. He existed, and there was no place, creation, or thing; and He is the Creator of everything.”
Imam al-Hafizh al-Bayhaqi said in his book, al-Asma’u wa-s-Sifat: “…What was mentioned towards the end of the hadith is an indication of denying Allah has a place and denying the slave is alike to Allah, wherever he was in proximity or remoteness. Allah, the Exalted, is az-Zhahir, the External, hence, it is valid to know about Him by proofs. Allah is al-Batin, the Internal, and this invalids that He would be in a place.” He also said: “Some of our companions used as a proof to refute the place to Allah the saying of the Prophet, sall-Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam : ‘You are the External and there is nothing above You, and You are the Intern<l and there is nothing underneath You.’ Therefore, if there is nothing above Him and nothing underneath Him, He is not in a place.”
Imam Ahmad Ibn Salamah, Abu Ja’far at­Tahawi, who was born in the year 237 hijri, wrote a book called al-‘Aqidah at­Tahawiyyah. He describes that the content of his noble book as an elucidation of the creed of Ahlu-s­Sunnah wa-l-Jama’ah, which is the creed of Imam  Abu Hanifah, who died in the year 150 hijri, and his two companions, Imam Abu Yusuf al-Qadi and Imam Muhammad Ibn al­Hasan ash-Shaybani and the others followers of the school. He said in his book: “Allah is supremely clear of all boundaries, extremes, sides, organs and instruments. The six directions do not contain Him–these are attributed to all created things.” Such is the saying of Imam Abu Ja’far who is an eminent scholar among the as-Salaf. He explicitly stated that Allah is clear of being contained by the six directions. The six directions are above, below, in front of, behind, right, and left.
The linguist and scholar of hadith, Imam Muhammad Murtada az-Zabidi, narrated by a continuous chain from himself back to Imam Zayn al-‘Abidin ‘Ali Ibn al-Husayn Ibn ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib,, the one who earned the title of as-Sajjad for his frequent prayers, who said in his treatise as­Sahifah as-Sajjadiyyah, also known as Zabur Ali Muhammad, about Allah:
which means: “O Allah, You are clear of all imperfection. You are Allah, the One Who no place contains You.” He also said:
which means: “O Allah, You are clear of all imperfection. You are Allah, the One Who is not in boundaries.”
In the explanation of al-Bukhari in the chapter on al-Jihad, Hafidh Ibn Hajar said: “The fact that the two directions above and below are impossible to be attributes of Allah, does not necessitate that Allah would not be attributed with aboveness, because attributing aboveness to Allah is a matter of status and the impossibility lies in it being physical.”
The scholar Imam Zayn ad-Din Ibn Nujaym al-Hanafi, in his book Al-Bahr ar­Ra’iq, said: “Whoever says it is possible that Allah would do a deed in which there is no wisdom commits blasphemy, and also he commits blasphemy by affirming a place to Allah, the Exalted.”

Imam Ahmad ar-Rifa’i al-Kabir, who lived around the year 600 hijri, said:

which means: “The ultimate knowledge about Allah is to be certain that Allah exists without a how or a place.”
Imam Muhammad Ibn Hibah al-Makki, in his book Hada’iqu-l-Fusul wa Jawahiri-l-‘Uqul,–also called al-‘Aqidat-as-Salahiyyah because he gave it as a gift to Sultan Salah-ad-Din al-Ayyubiyy who ordered that this book be taught to the children in schools and broadcast from the top of minarets, said:

which means: “Allah existed eternally and there was no place, and the judgment about His existence now is that He is as He was, i.e., without a place.”

Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq said: “He who claims that Allah is in something or on something or from something, commits ash-shirk. Because if He was in something, He would be contained, and if He was on something, He would be carried, and if He was from something, He would be a creature.”
Shaykh ‘Abdul-Ghani an-Nabulusi said: “He who believes that Allah fills the heavens and earth or that He is a body sitting above the Throne is an unbeliver.”
Imam Abul-Qasim ‘Ali Ibn al-Hasan Ibn Hibatillah Ibn ‘Asakir said in his ‘Aqidah: “Allah existed before the creation. He does not have a before or an after, an above or a below, a right or a left, an in front of or a behind, a whole or a part. It must not be said when was He, where was He, or how was He. He exists without a place.”
Imam Abu Sulayman al-Khattabi said: “What is obligatory upon us and upon every Muslim to know is that our Lord has no shape or form, because the shape has a ‘how’ and ‘how’ does not apply to Allah or His Attributes.”
Know beyond doubt that the question ‘how’ does not apply to Allah, because this is a question about shapes, bodies, places, depths and dimensions; Allah is clear of all of that. Also be firm that it is invalid to say about Allah “… but we do not know how”, because in essence, it falsely indicates that Allah has a color, shape, dimensions, body, place, but one is ignorant of the ‘how’ of it.
Imam al-Ghazali said: ” Allah, the Exalted, existed eternally and there was no place. He is not a body, a atom, or a property, and He is not on a place or in a place.”
All of these sayings show that attributing the sensuous physical aboveness and place to Allah is contrary to the Qur’an, the hadith, the ijma’, and the intellectual proof. The intellectual proof that Allah exists without a place lies in the fact that the one who is in a place would have an area, and the one who has an area is in need of it, and the one who needs others is not God. Moreover, as the mind determines that Allah existed without a place before creating places, the mind determines that after Allah created the places He still exists without a place.
Scholars like Imam Ahmad ar­Rifa’i determined that lifting the hands and the faces towards the sky when performing du’a (supplication) is because the heavens are the qiblah of du’a just as the Ka’bah is the qiblah of as­Salah. From the heavens, the mercies and blessings of Allah descend. This does not mean He is located there, exactly like he is not located inside the Ka’bah.
Hence, it is clear for the one who seeks the truth that the saying that Allah exists without a place is what complies with the Qur’an, the hadith, the ijma’, and the criteria of the sound intellect. Be firm and certain that before creating places, Allah Who created everything (places and others), existed without a place, and after creating places, He still exists without a place.
Since we have determined that the creed of the Muslims is that Allah exists without a place and that the question ‘how’ does not apply to Allah, it is clear to us that the Throne which is the ceiling of Paradise, is not a place for Allah, the Exalted.
Imam Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi related that Imam ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the fourth caliph, said:
which means: “Allah created the Throne as an indication of His power and did not take it as a place for Himself.”
Imam Abu Hanifah said in his book from his school al­Wasiyyah: ” … and He is the Preserver of the Throne and of other than the Throne without needing it. Had He been in need, He would not have the power to create the world and to manage and preserve it. Moreover, had He been in a place needing to sit and rest before creating the Throne, where was Allah, then?” That is the question: ‘where was Allah’ would have applied to Him, which is impossible.
Also, in his book, Al-Fiqh al-Absat, Imam Abu Hanifah said: “Allah existed eternally and there was no place; He existed before creating the creation. He existed and there was not a place, a creation or a thing; and He is the Creator of everything. He who says ‘I do not know if my Lord is in the heavens or on the earth, is a unbeliever. Also is an unbeliever whoever says that ‘He is on the Throne and I do not know whether the Throne is in the heaven or on the earth’.”
Consequently, Imam Ahmad declared a kafir whomever says these last two phrases because they contain attributing a direction, boundary, and place to Allah. Everything which has a direction and boundary is by necessity in need of a Creator. Thus it is not the intention of Imam Abu Hanifah to prove that the heaven and the Throne are places for Allah, as those who liken Allah to the creation claim. This is by virtue of the aforementioned saying of the Imam: “Had He been in a place needing to sit and rest, then before creating the Throne where was Allah?”, which is clear in negating that Allah has a direction or a place.
In his book, al-Ihya’ Ulumu-d-Din, Imam al­Ghazali said: “… places do not contain Him, nor do the directions, earth, or heavens. He is attributed with subjugating the Throne as He said in the Qur’an–with the meaning that He willed–and not as what people may delude. It is a  a kind of subjugation which is clear of touching, resting, holding, moving and containment. The Throne does not carry Him, but rather the Throne and those angels who carry it are all carried by Allah with His Power and are subjugated to Him. He is above the Throne and above the heavens and above everything–in status– an aboveness that does not give Him proximity to the Throne or the heavens as it does not give Him farness from earth. He is higher in status than everything: higher in status than the Throne and the heavens, as He is higher in status than earth and the rest of the creation. “
Shaykh ‘Abdu-l-Ghani an-Nabulusi said: “He who believes that Allah filled the heavens and earth or that He is a body sitting above the Throne, is a kafir.” Allah the Most High says in the Noble Qur’an (Maryam, 93) :
which means: “All those in the heavens and earth must come to Allah as creatures.” In his Exegesis, Imam ar-Razi said: “… And since it is affirmed by this verse that everything that existed in the heavens and earth is a creature to Allah, and since it is obligatory that Allah is clear of being a creature, thus He is clear of being in a place or direction, or on the Throne or the Chair.”
That is the reason why Allah Ta’ala says (Taha,5):
“The Merciful subjugates the Throne” It clearly does not mean that Allah sits on the throne or that Allah is physycally established on the Throne. In the Arabic language, the word istawa’ (which with translated as subjugating) has fifteen different meanings, among of which are to subjugate, to sit, to protect, to conquer, and to preserve. Based on what we have covered so far it is clear that it is blasphemous to apply the meaning ‘to sit’ to Allah. However the terms to preserve and to subjugate are in compliance with Din and language.
Imam Hafizh Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali explained the meaning of al-istiwa’ by al-istila’, which means subjugating. That is, Allah attributed Himself with subjugating the Throne in pre-eternity. Since the angelic Throne is subjugated by Allah, then everything else which is smaller than His Throne is under the control of Allah.
It was narrated about Imam Malik Ibn Anas, may Allah reward him, in what al­Bayhaqi related with a sound chain from the route of ‘Abd-Ullah Ibn Wahb, that “We were at Malik’s when a man entered and said, ‘O Aba ‘Abd-Illah, (meaning Imam Malik), the Merciful subjugates the Throne, but how does he subjugate?’ Malik looked down astonishingly and then lifted his head and said “He subjugates in the way He attributed to Himself the deed of subjugating. It is forbidden to ask ‘how’, since ‘how’ cannot be applied to Him. BY your question I understand you have become an Heretic. Please, bring him away.” Hence, the saying of Imam Malik, ”how’ cannot be applied to Him’, and this means that His subjugation of the Throne is without a how, i.e., it is not with a body, place, shape, or form as sitting, touching, suspending above, and the like.
Hence, there is no basis for the saying of those who liken Allah to the creation, who misunderstand Imam Malik and his words “the act of subjugating is known but the how of it is unknown”. The interpret it by claiming that istawa’ is sitting, but the way of sitting is not know. This saying of theirs is an heretic innovation, because sitting, no matter how it is would be imply the existence of organs and parts that fold. Moreover, that term that they attribute to Imam Malik was not clearly confirmed about him by others.
Imam al-Lalaka’i narrated about the Mother of Believers Umm Salamah and Rabi’ah Ibn Abi ‘Abdu-r-Rahman:
which means: “The attribute of subjugating is not unknown, because it is mentioned in the Qur’an. The how (kayf) of it is inconceivable, because its applicability to Allah is impossible.” Hence, the ahadith and the ayat that attribute aboveness to Allah, refer to the aboveness of status and not the aboveness of place, direction, touching or suspending.
Allah says in His Glorious Book (al-An’am, 61):
which means: “And He is the Victorious above His creatures”, Hence the related aboveness is that of subjugation and not that of place or direction.
Beware of what appeared in the Censored and Reprinted Translation of the meanings of the Qur’an by Yusuf Ali, which in its revised version is issued and printed by King Fahd Holy Qur’an Printing Complex in Medina al-Munawwarah, where on page 879, in interpreting ayah 5 in Surat Taha:
The original Yusuf Ali translation: “The Most Gracious is firmly established on the throne,” and in the footnote the Wahhabi heretics added: “Who encompasses all creation and SITS on the throne.”
Similarly, be aware of all the other parts of this book which liken Allah to His creation, like on page 1799 where in ayah 42 of Surat al-Qalam:
they attribute a shin to Allah. On page 1015 in interpreting Surat an-Nur, ayah 35:
they correctly interpret “Allah is the light” but in the footnote they explicitly declare their deviance by saying “We can only think of Allah in terms of our phenomenal experience.”
Al-Mushabbihah are those who liken Allah to the creation; they believe Allah resembles the creation. They attribute to Allah places, directions, shapes, and bodies, and they try to camouflage it by saying: “However, we do not know how His place is, or how He is sitting, or how His face is, or how His shin is, or how his light is.” All of that does not clear them of blasphemy.
Praise be to Allah the Lord of the worlds the One Who is clear of resembling the creation, all non befitting attributes, and all that which the blasphemers unrightfully say about Him.

Existence of God is a widely discussed reality amongst people around the world (Muslims and non-muslims alike), some deny it without proper investigation (i.e. atheists), many make co-sharers with Him (like Christians, Hindus, etc…), and many believe in His unity (oneness). However there are some who strictly but falsely claim to be protectors and right advocators of His Oneness (tawhid) like Jews and the so called “reformers of Islam” but if we take a close look at their beliefs we will find many similarities, for example seating the Lord literally upon on throne [Ibn Taymiyya said in his Fatawa: “The establishment of Allah over the Throne is real, and the servant’s establishment over the ship is real (وللّه ـ تعالى ـ استواء على عرشه حقيقة، وللعبد استواء على الفلك حقيقة،) [Majmu` al-Fatawa, (5/199)], believing Him to have literal hands, shins, legs, eyes, etc… [Refer to Wahabi Published English translation of Qur’an by Muhsin Khan/Hilali under 3:73 or Page # 81] This is something which is main belief of Literalists and they propagate that Istawa al’al Arsh mentioned in Qur’an is to be taken literally, and the descent of Lord (ينزل ربنا) mentioned in hadith along with him being in the sky (fi al Sam’a) is also to be taken apparently.

They declare Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’h as people of Bidah because we give figurative explanation which suits Allah’s Majesty. Amongst the fundamental proofs which literalists cite are:

1)  Hadith of the Slave girl

The Hadith of Muawiya ibn al-Hakam: He (the Holy Prophet) said: Bring her to me. So I brought her to him. He said to her: Where is Allah? She said: He is in the heaven(fi al sama’) He said: Who am I? She said: Thou art the Messenger of Allah. He said: Grant her freedom, she is a believing woman. (Muslim: Book 4, Hadith# 1094)

From this hadith they conclusively derive that ALLAH is literally in the sky as it is approved by Prophet (Peace be upon him) himself thus they make it part of their aqida and whosoever differs to them becomes a bidati/Jahimi etc… However their reasoning is not only false but also idiotic. Let’s see how

a) First of all the hadith is only ahad (singular and cannot be used for aqida) with this chain of narrators
b) Secondly there are overwhelming Quranic ayahs and ahadith with multiple chains of narrators which if taken literally prove their understanding false therefore even if the classification of hadith as ahad is not accepted still the hadith cannot be taken literally at any cost. [Note: This rule will also apply to other verses and ahadith which salafis take literally too]

c) Third In Sharah of this hadith Imam an Nawawi (rah) the leading commentator of Sahih Muslim has given figurative explanation (according to Literalists the Ash’aris are Ahlul Bidah for giving figurative explanation, so this false fatwa of them applies on Imam Nawawi too, let alone Ibn Hajr al Asqalani and many other great scholars)

**Proof for (a) i.e. Hadith is ahad**

This version (where is Allah, in the sky) only comes from Muwaiya ibn al Hakam (ra) via the route of At’a bin Yassar thus is therefore ahad, It is fundamental principle that “AHAD NARRATIONS” cannot be taken as conclusive proof over “Aqida issues”

**Proof for (b) i.e. Ayahs and sahih ahadith which if taken literally will prove the above wording of hadith completely false**

Quran states: It was We Who created man, and We know what dark suggestions his soul makes to him: for We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein.(50:16)

Our dear Salafis turn towards figurative explanation of ALLAH’s closeness and say He is close “By his knowledge only” and they run towards aqwaal of different ulama on this (i.e. hypocrisy in simple words)

Quran states: He is Allah in(fi) the heavens and “IN THE EARTH  (وَفِىالارْضِ )” He knoweth both your secret and your utterance, and He knoweth what ye earn.(6:3)

“Fi” in Arabic literally means ”In” and is used for both Heaven and Earth, The Literalists will die but never believe ALLAH to be literally in earth

Hadith in Sahih Bukhari states: Volume 1, Book 12, Number 720:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar: The Prophet saw expectoration in the direction of the Qibla of the mosque while he was leading the prayer, and scratched it off. After finishing the prayer, he said, “Whenever any of you is in prayer he should know that Allah is in front of him.So none should spit in front of him in the prayer.”

Note: Ibn Taymiyyah is known to have compared existance of Allah to that of “moon and sun” while explaining this hadith i.e Allah azza Wajjal is infront of us just like Sun and Moon come in-front of us (Audhobillah Min Dhalik)

Proof for (c) i.e. Sharah of Imam Nawawi (rah) on the same hadith

هذا الحديث من أحاديث الصفات , وفيها مذهبان تقدم ذكرهما مرات في كتاب الإيمان . أحدهما : الإيمان به من غير خوض في معناه , مع اعتقاد أن الله تعالى ليس كمثله شيء وتنزيهه عن سمات المخلوقات . والثاني تأويله بما يليق به , فمن قال بهذا قال : كان المراد امتحانها , هل هي موحدة تقر بأن الخالق المدبر الفعال هو الله وحده , وهو الذي إذا دعاه الداعي استقبل السماء كما إذا صلى المصلي استقبل الكعبة ؟ وليس ذلك ; لأنه منحصر في السماء كما أنه ليس منحصرا في جهة الكعبة , بل ذلك لأن السماء قبلة الداعين , كما أن الكعبة قبلة المصلين , أو هي من عبدة الأوثان العابدين للأوثان التي بين أيديهم , فلما قالت : في السماء , علم أنها موحدة وليست عابدة للأوثان.

Translation: This is one of the “hadiths of attributes” and there are two positions about it as it was mentioned in the book of faith, First: is to have faith in it “Without discussing its meaning, while believing of Allah Most High that “there is nothing whatsoever like unto Him”and that He is exalted above having any of the attributes of His creatures. ”The second is to FIGURATIVELY EXPLAIN IT” in a fitting way, scholars who hold this position adduce that the point of the hadith was to ”test the slave girl : Was she a monotheist”who affirmed that the Creator, the Disposer, the Doer, is Allah alone and that He is the one called upon when a person making supplication (du’a) faces the sky–just as those performing the prayer (salat) face the Kaaba, since the sky is the qibla of those who supplicate, as the Kaaba is the qibla of those who perform the prayer. or was she a worshipper of the idols which they placed in front of themselves? So when she said, In the sky, it was plain that she was not an idol worshipper(Sahih Muslim bi Sharh al-Nawawi, Volume No.5, Page Nos. 19-20, Published by Dar ul Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon)

Imam Nawawi (rah) continues and gives conclusive answer over this issue, he quotes Imam Qadhi Iyad (rah) [Also Quoted by Imam Jalal ud din Suyuti rah in his Sharah of Sunnan Nasa’i]

قال القاضي عياض : لا خلاف بين المسلمين قاطبة فقيههم ومحدثهم ومتكلمهم ونظارهم ومقلدهم أن الظواهر الواردة بذكر الله تعالى في السماء كقوله تعالى : { أأمنتم من في السماء أن يخسف بكم الأرض } ونحوه ليست على ظاهرها , بل متأولة عند جميعهم

Qadhi Iyaad (rah) said: There is no disagreement amongst Muslims whether between Fuqaha, or hadith scholars, the theologians, polemicists and ordinary Muslims who do taqlid, they all say that outward meaning of texts such as Allah is in the sky is not meant, for example the words of the Exalted: “Are you assured that He who is in the sky will not cause the earth to swallow you up?”THESE AND SIMILAR TEXTS CANNOT BE TAKEN LITERALLY, RATHER THEY ARE TO BE EXPLAINED WITH INTERPRETATION (I.E. TAWEEL) [ibid]

The same great Imam also says in his ”Majmu’ sharh al Muhadhab”

The most well-known of the school of the theologians (mutakallimin) say that the divine attributes are interpreted figuratively according to what befits them.(Volume No. 1, Page No. 25)

Note: This is the same great Imam who is author of Kitaab al Adhkar which has been grossly tampered by salafis, I wonder which Islamic text have they spared.

The great Hanafi Imam, Mullah Ali Qari (rah) says in his magnificent Mirqaat Sharh al Mishqaat:

 فقال لها أي للجارية رسول الله أين الله وفي رواية أين ربك أي أين مكان حكمه وأمره وظهور ملكه وقدرته فقالت في السماء قال القاضي هو على معنى الذي جاء أمره ونهيه من قبل السماء لم يرد به السؤال عن المكان فإنه منزه عنه كما هو منزه عن الزمان بل مراده من سؤاله إياها أن يعلم أنها موحدة أو مشركة لأن كفار العرب كانوا يعبدون الأصنام وكان لكل قوم منهم صنم مخصوص يكون فيما بينهم يعبدونه ويعظمونه ولعل سفهاءهم وجهلتهم كانوا لا يعرفون معبودا غيره فأراد أن يتعرف أنها ما تعبد فلما قالت في السماء وفي رواية أشارت إلى السماء فهم أنها موحدة يريد بذلك نفي الآلهة الأرضية التي هي الأصنام لا إثبات السماء مكانا له تعالى الله عما يقول الظالمون علوا كبيرا ولأنه لما كان مأمورا بأن يكلم الناس على قدر عقولهم ويهديهم إلى الحق على حسب فهمهم ووجدها تعتقد أن المستحق للعبودية إله يدبر الأمر من السماء إلى الأرض لا الآلهة التي يعبدها المشركون قنع منها بذلك ولم يكلفها اعتقاد ما هو صرف التوحيد وحقيقة التنزيه وقيل معناه أن أمره ونهيه ورحمته ووحيه جاءت من السماء فهو كقوله تعالى أأمنتم من في السماء تبارك قيل وقد جاء في بعض الأحاديث أن هذه الجارية كانت خرساء ولهذا جوز الشافعي الأخرس في العتق فقوله فقالت في السماء بمعنى أشارت إلى السماء كما في رواية قال شارح الوقاية وجاز الأصم أي من يكون في أذنه وقرأ أما من لم يسمع أصلا فينبغي أن لا يجوز لأنه فائت جنس المنفعة فقال من أنا فقالت أنت رسول الله فقال رسول الله أعتقها أمر إجازة رواه مالك وفي رواية مسلم قال أي معاوية كانت لي جارية ترعى غنما قبل أحد بكسر القاف وفتح الباء أي جانبه وأحد بضمتين جبل معروف في المدينة والجوانية بتشديد الواو وموضع قريب أحد فأطلعت بتشديد الطاء أي أشرفت على الغنم ذات يوم أي يوما من الأيام أو نهارا وذات زائدة فإذا الذئب قد ذهب بشاة من غنمنا إذا للمفاجأة واللام في الذئب للعهدية الذهنية نحو قوله تعالى إذ هما في الغار التوبة وأنا رجل من بني آدم آسف بهمزة ممدودة وفتح سين أي أغضب كما يأسفون لكن أي وأردت أن أضربها ضربا شديدا على ما هو مقتضى الغضب لكن صككتها صكة أي لطمتها لطمة فأتيت رسول الله فعظم بالتشديد والفتح ذلك على أي كبر النبي ذلك الأمر أو الضرب علي وفي نسخة بالتخفيف والضم قلت وفي نسخة فقلت يا رسول الله أفلا أعتقها قال الطيبي رحمه الله فإن قلت كيف التوفيق بين الروايتين قلت الرواية الأولى متضم

من هذه اللطمة إعتاقها أفيكفيني إعتاقها للأمرين جميعا والرواية الثانية مطلقة تحتمل الأمرين والمطلق محمول على المقيد ومما يدل على أن السؤال ليس عن مجرد اللطمة سؤال النبي الجارية عن إيمانها ا ه والظاهر أن الإعتاق عن اللطمة مستحب فيندرج في ضمن الإعتاق الواجب فليس من باب تداخل الكفارة كما توهم قال آتيني بها الباء للتعدية أي احضر بها إلي فأتيته بها فقال لها أين الله أي أين المعبود المستحق الموصوف بصفات الكمال قالت في السماء أي كما في الأرض والإقتصار من باب الإكتفاء قال تعالى جل جلاله وهو الذي في السماء إله وفي الأرض إله الزخرف وقال الله عز وجل وهو الله في السموات وفي الأرض الأنعام ويمكن أن يكون الاقتصار لدفع توهم الشركة في العبودية ردا على عبدة الأصنام الأرضية قال من أنا قالت أنت رسول الله قال اعتقها فإنها مؤمنة أي بالله وبرسوله وبما جاء من عندهما وهذا يدل على قبول الإيمان الإجمالي ونفي التكليف الإستدلالي باب اللعان في المغرب لعنه لعنا ولاعنه ملاعنة ولعانا وتلاعنوا لعن بعضهم بعضا وأصله الطرد قال النووي رحمه الله إنما سمى لعانا لأن كلا من الزوجين يبعد عن صاحبه ويحرم النكاح بينهما على التأبيد واللعان عند جمهور أصحابنا يمين وقيل شهادة وقيل يمين فيها شوب شهادة وينبغي أن يكون بحضرة الإمام أو القاضي جمع من المسلمين وهو أحد أنواع التغليظ فإنه يغلظ بالزمان والمكان والجمع قال المحقق ابن الهمام هو مصدر لاعن سماعي لا قياسي والقياس الملاعنة وكثيرا من النحاة يجعلون الفعال والمفاعلة مصدرين قياسيين لفاعل واللعن في اللغة الطرد والإبعاد وفي الفقه اسم يجري بين الزوجين من الشهادات بالألفاظ المعلومات سمى بذلك لوجود لفظ اللعن في الخامسة تسمية للكل باسم الجزء ولم يسم باسم من الغضب وهو أيضا موجود فيها لأنه في كلامها وذاك في كلامه وهو أسبق والسبق من أسباب الترجيح وشرطه قيام النكاح وسببه قذفه زوجته بما يوجب الحد في الأجنبية وحكمه حرمتها بعد التلاعن وأهله من كان أهلا للشهادة فإن اللعان شهادات مؤكدات بالإيمان عندنا وأما عند الشافعي فأيمان مؤكدات بالشهادات وهو الظاهر من قول مالك وأحمد وتمام تحقيقه في شرحه للهداية

Translation: In another version of the same Ḥadīth there is the wording: “Where is your Lord?” It means that where is His place of decision, and His order, and the place where His dominion and power are manifested. {She said: “In the sky”} Imam al-Qadi [‘Iyad] said: “The meaning is that His command and His prohibition comes from the direction of the sky. The Prophet [sallallahu alayhi wa sallam] did not mean to ask her about the whereabouts of Allāh, since He transcends such an attribute as place, just as He transcends the attribute of time. Rather, the Prophet [sallallahu alayhi wa sallam] intended to find out by his question to her whether she was a monotheist declaring the uniqueness of Allah (muwahhidah), or whether she was a polytheist (mushrikah) because the Arabs were worshipping idols. Each clan amongst them had its special idol, which it worshipped and revered. Perhaps some of their ignorant and stupid people did not recognize any god whatsoever; therefore, the Prophet [sallallahu alayhi wa sallam] wanted to ascertain what she worshipped. So when she said “in the sky,” or, as in another version, she pointed to the sky, he [sallallahu alayhi wa sallam] understood that she was a monotheist declaring the uniqueness of Allāh. In other words , he wanted to preclude the gods on earth; that is, the idols. He did not mean to imply that He occupies a place in the sky, far-removed is Allāh from what the transgressors ascribe to Him in their insolence. Moreover, the Prophet [sallallahu alayhi wa sallam] had been ordered to speak to the people according to the extent of their intelligence, and to guide them to the truth in way which was appropriate to their understanding.

So when the Prophet [sallallahu alayhi wa sallam] found that she believed that the one who deserves to be worshipped is the God who implements His purpose from the sky to the earth, not the gods which the pagans worshipped, he was satisfied with that much from her, and he [sallallahu alayhi wa sallam] did not charge her with sheer unity (Sirf al-tauḤīd )–the principle of transcendence (Ḥaqīqat al-tanzīh) Some [of the ulamā’] have said that the meaning is that His order and prohibition, His mercy and revelation comes from the sky. In that case, this hadīth is similar [in its implications] to His word [sallallahu alayhi wa sallam]: “Do you feel secure from Him who is in the sky…?” Furthermore, in some other [authentic] versions of this Ḥadīth it comes that this girl was dumb, and for that reason [Imām] al-Shafi‘ī [d. 204 / 820; Cairo] permitted the freeing of a slave even if he is dumb. In such case, the words in the Ḥadīth “She said, ‘In the sky.’” mean that she pointed to the sky [since she could not speak, obviously; and this is just what has come expressly in another version of the Ḥadīth: “She pointed to the sky.”] [Mullah Ali Qari in Mirqat Sharh al Mishqaat, Volume No. 6, Page nos. 452-453, Published by Dar ul Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon]

Now let’s turn towards the Second fundamental proof which Literalists use to justify their anthropomorphism and fool innocent Muslims in believing that Allah is an entity which literally comes down to lowest heaven in the last part of night (Naudhobillah), the hadith which they cite is this

2) The Hadith of Descent

Book 004, Number 1656: (Sahih Muslim)

Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Our Lord, the Blessed and the Exalted, descends every night to the lowest heaven when one-third of the latter part of the night is left, and says: Who supplicates Me so that I may answer him? Who asks Me so that I may give to him? Who asks Me forgiveness so that I may forgive him?

Before Sharah of this hadith is given, one has to understand that Allah is closest to believers not only in the last part of night but everytime! However He has stressed upon being very close at last part of the night so that Muslims strive to do more Ibadah and wake up for Him. Similar metaphorical example is also given in a sahih hadith al Qudsi that If we walk towards Him, He runs towards us! This however does not mean that Allah is actually/literally running towards us.

Mullah Ali Qari (rah) said of this hadith:

You know that Imam Malik and al-Awazai, who are among the greatest of the early Muslims, both gave detailed figurative interpretations to the hadith, Another of them was Jafar al-Sadiq. Indeed a whole group of them [the early Muslims], as well as later scholars, said that whoever believes Allah to be in a particular physical direction is an unbeliever, as al-Iraqi has explicitly stated, saying that this was the position of Abu Hanifa, Malik, al-Shafi’i, al-Ashari, and al- Baqillani (Mirqat al-mafatih: sharh Mishkat al-masabih. 5 vols. Cairo 1309/1892. Reprint. Beirut: Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, n.d., 2.137)

In Sharah of this hadith Imam Nawawi (rah) also quotes Imam Malik (rah) and Awazai (rah) the great Imams of our Islaaf who proved that such hadiths should be ”figuratively” interpreted. Imam Nawawi (rah) said:

تأويل مالك بن أنس وغيره معناه تنزل رحمته وأمره وملائكته، كما قال: فعل السلطان: كذا إذا فعله أتباعه بأمره. والثاني: أنه على إِلاستعارة ومعناه الإقبال على الداعين بالإجابة واللطف والله أعلم

Translation: Imam Malik bin Anas (rah) and others (including Imam Awzai) interpreted it by saying : [“your Lord descends”] means “His mercy, command, and angels descend,” just as it is said, “The sultan did such-and-such,” when his followers did it at his command.( تنزل رحمته وأمره وملائكته كما يقال : فعل السلطان كذا إذا فعله أتباعه بأمره) The second is that it is a ”METAPHOR (الاستعارة )” signifying [Allah’s] concern for those making supplication, by answering them and kindness toward them (Sahih Muslim bi Sharh al-Nawawi, Volume No. 6, Page No.31, Published by Dar ul Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon).

No acceptance by Imam Nawawi that Allah literally comes down (Naudhobillah) to the lowest heaven as falsely asserted by salafis.

Imam Ibn Hajr al Asqalani (rah) says of this Hadith in his Fath al Bari

قوله : ( ينزل ربنا إلى السماء الدنيا ) ‏
استدل به من أثبت الجهة وقال : هي جهة العلو , وأنكر ذلك الجمهور لأن القول بذلك يفضي إلى التحيز تعالى الله عن ذلك .

Translation:Those who ”assert direction” for Allah have used this hadith as proof that He is in the direction of above-ness(uluww). The vast majority of the scholars reject this, because saying such leads to establishing boundaries for Him and Allah is exalted above that.[Fath ul Bari Sharh Sahih ul Bukhari, Volume No.3, Page No. 338 – Dar ul Fikr]Ibn Baz the famous Salafi scholar gave a weird explanation to Imam Ibn Hajr’s quote by saying:

ذلك الجمهور قال العلامة بن باز حفظه الله مراده بالجمهور أهل الكلام وأما أهل السنة وهم الصحابة رضي الله عنهم ومن تبعهم بإحسان فإنهم يثبتون لله الجهة وهي جهة العلو ويؤمنون بأنه سبحانه فوق العرش بلا
تمثيلولاتكييف والأدلة على ذلك من الكتاب والسنة أكثر من أن تحصر فتنبه واحذر والله أعلم

Translation: Ibn Baz says: What he means by “the vast majority of the scholars” is the vast majority of the scholars of kalam. As for Ahl al-Sunna — and these are the Companions and those who followed them in excellence – they assert a direction for Allah, and that is the direction of elevation, believing that the Exalted is above the Throne without giving an example and without entering into modality. The proofs from the Qur’an and the Sunna for this are innumerable, so take heed and beware. And Allah knows best. [Fath ul Bari with forgeries added by Bin Baaz, Published by Maktaba al Asriyyah, Beirut, Lebanon]

Audhobillah min Dhalik, However let’s see forward in the same passage what Imam Ibn Hajr has actually said and who he has quoted to conclude this issue, he has given detailed figurative explanation in light of other ahadith that it refers to Allah “Sending down (yunzilu) mercy and angel rather than He descending himself (yanzilu) and nowhere has he said that Ahlus Sunnah, companions and Islaaf pointed direction towards Allah.

Imam Ibn Hajr writes:

فمنهم من حمله على ظاهره وحقيقته وهم المشبهة تعالى الله عن قولهم

Translation: Some say that the ”Literal meaning is meant in true sense”: these are the Mushabbiha and Allah is exalted above what they say.

Then he also wrote:

ومنهم من أجراه على ما ورد مؤمنا به على طريق الإجمال منزها الله تعالى عن الكيفية والتشبيه وهم جمهور السلف , ونقله البيهقي وغيره عن الأئمة الأربعة والسفيانين والحمادين والأوزاعي والليث وغيرهم

Translation: Some have taken them as they have come, believing in them without specificity, declaring Allah to be transcendent above modality(kayfiyya) and likeness to creation (tashbih): these are the vast majority of the Salaf. That position is reported by Bayhaqi and others from the Four Imams, Sufyan ibn `Uyayna, Sufyan al-Thawri, Hammad ibn Salama, Hammad ibn Zayd, al-Awza`i, al-Layth, and others.

Ibn Hajr al Asqalani (rah) continues

وقال ابن العربي : حكي عن المبتدعة رد هذه الأحاديث , وعن السلف إمرارها , وعن قوم تأويلها وبه أقول . فأما قوله ينزل فهو راجع إلى أفعاله لا إلى ذاته , بل ذلك عبارة عن ملكه الذي ينزل بأمره ونهيه , والنزول كما يكون في الأجسام يكون في المعاني , فإن حملته في الحديث على الحسي فتلك صفة الملك المبعوث بذلك , وإن حملته على المعنوي بمعنى أنه لم يفعل ثم فعل فيسمى ذلك نزولا عن مرتبة إلى مرتبة , فهي عربية صحيحة انتهى . والحاصل أنه تأوله بوجهين : إما بأن المعنى ينزل أمره أو الملك بأمره , وإما بأنه استعارة بمعنى التلطف بالداعين والإجابة لهم ونحوه

Translation: Imam(Abu Bakr) Ibn al-`Arabi(rah) said: “It is reported that the innovators have rejected these hadiths, the Salaf let them pass as they came, and others interpreted them, and my position is the last one. The saying: “He descends” refers to His acts not His essence, indeed it is an expression for His angels who descend with His command and His prohibition. And just as descent can concern bodies, it can also concern ideas or spiritual notions (ma`ani). If one takes the hadith to refer to a physical occurrence, then descent would be the attribute of the angel sent to carry out an order. If one takes it to refer to a spiritual occurrence, that is, first He did not act, then He acted: this would be called a descent from one rank to another, and this is a sound Arabic meaning.” In sum it is interpreted in two ways: the first is: His command or His angel descends; the second is: it is a metaphor for His regard for supplicants, His answering them, and so forth. 

وقد حكى أبو بكر بن فورك أن بعض المشايخ ضبطه بضم أوله على حذف المفعول أي ينزل ملكا , ويقويه ما رواه النسائي من طريق الأغر عن أبي هريرة وأبي سعيد بلفظ ” إن الله يمهل حتى يمضي شطر الليل , ثم يأمر مناديا يقول : هل من داع فيستجاب له ” الحديث . وفي حديث عثمان بن أبي العاص ” ينادي مناد هل من داع يستجاب له ” الحديث . قال القرطبي : وبهذا يرتفع الإشكال , ولا يعكر عليه ما في رواية رفاعة الجهني ” ينزل الله إلى السماء الدنيا فيقول : لا أسأل عن عبادي غيري ” لأنه ليس في ذلك ما يدفع التأويل المذكور

Translation: Abu Bakr ibn Furak said: Some of the masters have read it yunzilu (He sends down) instead of yanzilu (He descends), that is: He sends down an angel. This is strengthened by Nisa’i’s narration through al-Aghurr from Abu Hurayra and Abu Sa`id al-Khudri: “Allah waits until the first part of the night is over, then He orders a herald to say: Is there anyone supplicating so that he may be answered?…”There is also the hadith of `Uthman ibn Abi al-`As: “The gates of heaven are opened in the middle of the night and a herald calls out: Is there anyone supplicating so that he may be answered?…” Al-Qurtubi said: “This clears all ambiguity, and there is no interference by the narration of Rufa`at al-Jahni whereby “Allah descends to the nearest heaven and says: No-one other than I asks about My servants” for there is nothing in this which precludes the above-mentioned interpretation. [Fath ul Bari, 3:339 – Dar ul Fikr]

وقال البيضاوي : ولما ثبت بالقواطع أنه سبحانه منزه عن الجسمية والتحيز امتنع عليه النزول على معنى الانتقال من موضع إلى موضع أخفض منه , فالمراد نور رحمته , أي ينتقل من مقتضى صفة الجلال التي تقتضي الغضب والانتقام إلى مقتضى صفة الإكرام التي تقتضي الرأفة والرحمة

Translation:Al-Baydawi said:”Since it is established with decisive proofs that the Exalted is transcendent above having a body or being circumscribed by boundaries, it is forbidden to attribute to Him descent in the sense of displacement from one place to another place lower than it. What is meant is the light of His mercy: that is, He moves from what is pursuant to the attribute of Majesty entailing wrath and punishment, to what is pursuant to the attribute of Generosity entailing kindness and mercy.””[ibid]Imam Ibn Hajr al Asqalani (rah) also states in his Fath al Bari that:

قال ابن المنير : جميع الأحاديث في هذه الترجمة مطابقة لها إلا حديث ابن عباس فليس فيه إلا قوله ” رب العرش ” ومطابقته والله أعلم من جهة أنه نبه على بطلان قول من أثبت الجهة أخذا من قوله ( ذي المعارج ) ففهم أن العلو الفوقي مضاف إلى الله تعالى , فبين المصنف أن الجهة التي يصدق عليها أنها سماء والجهة التي يصدق عليها أنها عرش كل منهما مخلوق مربوب محدث , وقد كان الله قبل ذلك وغيره , فحدثت هذه الأمكنة , وقدمه يحيل وصفه بالتحيز فيها والله أعلم

Translation: And by including the hadith of Ibn `Abbas containing the words: “Lord of the mighty Throne” into this chapter, Bukhari warned those that might predicate spatial elevation to Allah (`uluw fawqi) that both the direction in which the heaven is believed to be and that in which the Throne is believed to be are created, lorded over, and brought into existence by Allah Who existed before all that and before everything else. Thus these places were created, and his existence, being eternal without beginning, precludes reference to him as being bounded by them. And Allah knows best.

Imam Ibn Hajr al Asqalani (rah) explains in his Fath al Bari again

وقيل مناسبة التسبيح في الأماكن المنخفضة من جهة أن التسبيح هو التنزيه فناسب تنزيه الله عن صفات الانخفاض كما ناسب تكبيره عند الأماكن المرتفعة , ولا يلزم من كون جهتي العلو والسفل محال على الله أن لا يوصف بالعلو لأن وصفه بالعلو من جهة المعنى والمستحيل كون ذلك من جهة الحس

Translation: The reality that the two directions of “above” and “below” are impossible for Allah but it does not mean that he cannot be described with the attribute of elevation (`uluw), for such description is only to denote highness, not that of sensory perception (Ibn Hajar, Fath al-bari 6:240 – Kitab ul Jihad, Published by Dar ul Fikr)
3) The Book over the throneVolume 9, Book 93, Number 643: (Sahih Bukhari)

Narrated Abu Huraira:

I heard Allah’s Apostle saying, “Before Allah created the creations, He wrote a Book (wherein He has written): My Mercy has preceded my Anger.” and that (Book) is written with Him over the Throne.”

First of all ”With him” refers to position of rank and definitely not location, because locations can never apply to him, if directed towards him then it contradicts the clear message in Surat al Ikhlaas and verses like “there is nothing whatsoever like unto Him” (Qur’an 42:11)

Imam Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani (rah) explains in his Fath al Bari

إذا حملوه , وإن كان حامل العرش وحامل حملته هو الله , وليس قولنا إن الله على العرش أي مماس له أو متمكن فيه أو متحيز في جهة من جهاته بل هو خبر جاء به التوقيف , فقلنا له به ونفينا عنه التكييف إذ ليس كمثله شيء وبالله التوفيق . وقوله ” فوق عرشه ” صفة الكتاب , وقيل إن فوق هنا بمعنى دون , كما جاء في قوله تعالى ( بعوضة فما فوقها ) وهو بعيد , وقال ابن أبي جمرة يؤخذ من كون الكتاب المذكور فوق العرش أن الحكمة اقتضت أن يكون العرش حاملا لما شاء الله من أثر حكمة الله وقدرته وغامض غيبه ليستأثر هو بذلك من طريق العلم والإحاطة , فيكون من أكبر الأدلة على انفراده بعلم الغيب , قال : وقد يكون ذلك تفسيرا لقوله ( الرحمن على العرش استوى ) أي ما شاءه من قدرته وهو كتابه الذي وضعه فوق العرش

Translation: When we say: “Allah is above the Throne” (Allah `ala al-`arsh), it does not mean that He is touching it or that He is located on it or bounded by a certain side of the Throne. Rather, it is a report which is transmitted as is, and so we repeat it while at the same time negating any modality for there is nothing like Him whatsoever, and from Him is all success.As for “over His throne” (in the hadith) it refers to the Book. Some have taken it in the sense of “upwards from His Throne,” as in Allah’s saying: “a gnat, or anything above it” (2:26), but this is far-fetched. Ibn Abu Jamra (d. 695) said: “It may be said from the fact that the Book is mentioned as being “above the Throne” that the divine wisdom has decreed for the Throne to carry whatever Allah wishes of the record of His judgment, power, and the absolute unseen known of Him alone, so as to signify the exclusivity of His encompassing knowledge regarding these matters, making the Throne one of the greatest signs of the exclusivity of His knowledge of the Unseen. This could explain the verse al-rahmanu `al al-`arshi istawa as referring to whatever Allah wills of His power, which is the Book He has placed above His Throne.” [Fath ul Bari, 15:371 – Dar ul Fikr]

Now these were the proofs in light of leading Commentators of Bukhari and Muslim (i.e. Imam Ibn Hajr al Asqalani – Rahimuhullah and Imam Nawawi – Rahimuhullah), plus the greatest Seerah Author i.e. Imam Qadhi Iyaad (rah), The expert in theology/hadith i.e. Imam Abu Bakr Ibn Arabi (rah) and many others!

We would like to conclude with the explanation of Imam Bukhari (Rahimuhullah) himself on “WAJH (FACE)” of Allah, according to Salafis all such attributes are to be taken literally and giving Taweel on any of them makes the person as Jahimi, now let us see if Salafis are true to their words.

 ـ سورة الْقَصَصِ

‏{‏كُلُّ شَىْءٍ هَالِكٌ إِلاَّ وَجْهَهُ‏}‏ إِلاَّ مُلْكَهُ، وَيُقَالُ إِلاَّ مَا أُرِيدَ بِهِ وَجْهُ اللَّهِ‏.‏ وَقَالَ مُجَاهِدٌ ‏{‏الأَنْبَاءُ‏}‏ الْحُجَجُ‏.

Imam Bukhari (rah) interpreted “Wajh (Face)” as “DOMINION OF ALLAH” [Sahih Bukhari, Kitab at-Tafseer]

মন্তব্য করুন

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  পরিবর্তন )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  পরিবর্তন )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  পরিবর্তন )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  পরিবর্তন )


Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: